M1: Unit 3: Chapter 3 Solution

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The poet’s lover is depicted in slightly different ways in these versions. In some she is ‘speaking or murmuring’ ‘softly and sweetly’, as has been often expected of young women. In others, she has a ‘tempting’ or ‘thrilling’ laughter, which connotes another stereotypical female figure. There are versions which seem to avoid any polarities, as, for instance, the laughter becomes ‘magical’ or ‘enticing’.

When you are translating these lines, you may find yourself in a situation where the words you choose inevitably connote certain stereotypes about females prevalent in your own cultures and your own literary traditions. It will be up to you whether to stick to these stereotypes and perpetuate them, or to choose other words and try to broaden the horizons of your readers.